Russia at present is considered one of few countries in which the oil recovery has a long and famous history. The Russian geologists and oilmen conduct searches, investigation and development of oil deposits over 135 years. And the first oil fountain was received in Russia in 1864 from a chink, drilled from the river Kudako on Kuban. Russia takes the third place in the world on stocks of oil, conceding only Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Perspective and prognosed stocks of oil in Russia are estimated in 62,7 billion tons. Oil deposits are open in territories of 36 subjects of the Russian Federation, in 30 from them extraction of hydrocarbonic raw material.
The history oil exploratory works in Russia is accepted for dividing into four periods.
The first period (second half of XIX centuries — the first quarter of XX century) was the biggest on duration and as it is uneasy to guess, the most backward on technologies. Pioneers of oil extracting could not brag of a high level of knowledge of regional geology and prospects oil and gas supply bowels. Amounts of works were small, techniques are far from perfect, and areas of Northern Caucasus were considered as " oil Mecca " exclusively. At the same time, already to middle of 20th years of our century the oil recovery in Russia reached 2,5 million tons per one year.
The second period which has begun at the end of 20th years, became really revolutionary. Volumes of prospecting works were appreciably expanded also the Soviet scientists have started purposeful studying new territories. Their efforts have not passed for nothing, moreover, they have achieved the present success. To be convinced of it is enough to recollect, that in 1929-1932 deposits in the Urals-Volga Region (later this region began to name "the second Baku") and Timano-Pechora oil-gas supply provinces were open. Impressing statistics: to the beginning of Great Domestic war (1941) in Russia it was open 49 oil deposits, by 1950 their number has increased on 57 deposits, and for the next decade — for 179. Growth of volumes of an oil recovery occurred accordingly: 30th years — 5-7 million tons in year, 1950 — 18 million tons, 1960 — 118 million tons. Basic oil "donors" at that time were deposits of the Urals--Volga Region.
The third period began from 60th years and was finished in middle 80. It was time when the base for the further development of oil branch of the country was pawned. For the third period became finishing 1988 which was record on the major parameters of development of prospecting works and reproduction of a mineral-raw-material base. To this time studying perspective areas of Siberia, the Timano-Pechora area, the Far East, Kaspii See region was expanded. Researches of the Arctic and Far East seas where the large oil deposits considerably changing structure of a raw-material base of a oil industry of Russia were open have begun. The major value had opening the largest oil deposits of Western Siberia which in short term has turned to the main fuel and energy centre. The volume of extracted oil for the period with 1960 for 1988 has increased about 118 million tons up to 557 million tons.
The fourth period conducts the readout since 1989 and volumes of an oil recovery were steadily reduced refer to as "the modern period of development". Since 90th years, having achieved the minimal value in 1996 (301 million t.) then have started to be increased very slowly (see table 1).
Table 1. An oil recovery, in one million t.
Last decade the volume of prospecting works was sharply reduced, rates of development of a raw-material base have essentially decreased. In Russia it is open about 2000 oil and oil-and-gas deposits. About 85 % from them are in Western Siberia (is today the main raw-material base of the country). The most part of other deposits falls to the Urals-Volga Region and the European North Russia.
Today in Russia three large groups of areas which correspond to initial, average and late stages of development of a raw-material base are allocated. At an initial stage of development there are deposits of Eastern Siberia, the Far East (except for island of Sakhalins), and also shelves of the Russian seas. The average stage of development is characteristic for deposits of Western Siberia, and also in part the European North (the Timano-Pechora region). At a late stage of development there are "old" obtaining areas of the Urals- Volga Region, Northern Caucasus and island of Sakhalins. About 900 oil deposits are not developed for the various reasons in Russia now. Data on an oil recovery, including a gas condensate, in Volga region and republic Bashkortostan are given federal district in table 2.
The basic parameters of work of the oil-extracting industry of Russia are given in table 3.